Van Marken historic walking routes
Jacques van Marken (1845-1906) together with his wife Agneta Matthes gave Delft “an awakening kiss” at the end of the 19th century.
First as a student at Delft University and later as the first technical engineer to graduate, he was dedicated to making himself of use to the world and the people around him. As founder of the Delft Yeast and Spiritus factory (known now as DSM), the Calvé factory, the Glue and Gelatine factory, and much more. He also introduced, as first social engineer, a large number of social benefits for his employees (107 pieces), unusual for the Netherlands at that time, including retirement, health insurance, and the first Works Council in the Netherlands.
In 1882 he built close to his factory the Agnetapark, a living quarter for his employees where he himself and his wife Agneta went to live amongst them. Like “sunlight city” in Liverpool built by William (Uni)Lever.
This walking map takes you along interesting points connected to Jacques and Agneta in Delft. Each route starts at statues and the former home of the owners “Rust Roest” in the Agnetapark. The black route is a circular route. The blue, red and green route end at the Jaffa cemetery and can be combined to circular routes, or you can use the public transport to return to the starting point.
Agnetapark and surroundings (black, circular walk)
1. Agnetapark and location of “Villa Rust Roest”; the home of the owners of the yeast factory Jacques and Agneta van Marken-Matthes
The Agnetapark is a museum and garden village built solely for the workers of the Yeast factory at the end of the 19th century. Designed by architect Zocher (known for the Vondelpark in Amsterdam). The park was opened first of June 1884 and named after the wife of Jacques van Marken the founder of the yeast factory, Agneta. In 1885 they built their own home “Villa Rust Roest”, so the director and his wife could live amongst their workers in the park. The house was designed by architect Eugen Gugel. In 1931 the villa was transformed to a domestic science school. In 1981 it was dismantled. All that’s left is a bust of Jacques and his wife Agneta.
2. The printing factory Van Marken NV, Frederik Matthesstraat 30
The printing factory was started in 1891 as a cooperation (in Holland for that time a novelty). Architect Schelling (who did a lot of designing for the yeast factory in that time) designed the building. Nowadays although there are small innovative companies in the building, there is still an original banner hanging on the second floor of the building.
3. The first part of the park (Zocherweg, Frederik Matthesstraat and Pasteurstraat)
78 houses for the workers were in 1884 designed by architect Kerkhoff, an assistant of Gugel at the Delft University (then called Polytechnische School). 4 apartments were built in 1 housing, they cost 2,20 guilders (1 dollar) a week. As the city of Delft had no fresh potable water, van Marken arranged for a ship to bring this every day from the Hague sand dunes.
4. Sew and haberdashery store, Fred Matthessstraat 2
After the death of her 32 year old man Antje Oversloot became in charge of this new shop. Nowadays it is a house to live in.
5. De Tent, Zocherweg 9
The place to be, “de Tent”, from its start in 1883 as a wooden Tent, until the mid 20th century. Surrounded by a playground and an open air bowling alley “Acht om de Lange”. In 1914 built in stone by architect Evers. Nowadays is it a restaurant “Heinde en Ver”. Since 1884 there was a bandstand in front of “de tent”, where the Yeast factory brass band used to play. Dismantled in the late 20th century but renewed and relocated in the park in the end 2020.
6. Wallerstraat 14-16 “Park shop and office of the community “Gemeenschappelijk Belang”
At the head of the Agnetapark 2 was built the park shop and office, with houses on both sides. The houses on the second floor also got their garden, like all the other houses, called “an overtuin”; a garden behind the one on the ground floor, accessible through a stair at the rear. Nowadays there are different kind of offices in the building.
7. Houses in Agnetapark II
The second part of the Agnetapark, built by architect Jan Gratama, in the spirit of his teacher Berlage, they look like English cottages. The 156 houses were must bigger compared to the Agnetapark 1 houses and cost 5 guilder (2,5 dollar) rent a week.
8. Livings Agnetapark III
The third part of the Agnetapark, built by architects Lucas and Niemeijer in the early 1960’s. Build in the common style in those days as walk-up flats.
9. Villa Solheim, Ruys de Beerenbrouckstraat 47
House of W. van Leeuwen, managing director of the yeast factory (NG&SF), and relative of Van Marken. After a journey to the Bauhaus exhibition in Berlin with architect Wegerif, Villa Solheim was built in 1932 in the Cubic Expressionistic Style. During the second world war the house was used as German headquarter. Nowadays students of the Delft University live in the Villa.
10. De Gemeenschap (The Community), Zocherweg 2
This first Community Centre in the Netherlands (1892) was built by architect Schelling. In the building there were different groups active: Sparta (man) and Olympia(woman) athletics (in the gym), a library, a kindergarten “the hope of the future”, and a cinema van Marken showed the first films of Lumière (after the release earlier that year in Paris). Nowadays it is used as an office building.
11. Café Altijd Gezelligheid, J.C. van Markenplein 10
The first pub in the park, since 1898. Started by Mr. Langeweg and still there, with billiards and darts.
12. Taplokaal, Alexander Flemingweg 80
The original “Taplokaal”, built in 1884 had a T-shaped floor plan. A place where the spirit was tapped and packed, so it could be transported by boat and train, to Rotterdam, The Hague and further. The building has been changed over the years. Since 1929, when the canal at the west side of the building had been filled up, the name of the factory “Nederlandsche Gist- en Spiritusfabriek” was placed on the wall.
13. Water tower, Kalverbos 22
Delft Water tower (architect M. Hartman), built in 1895. 11 years later than the Agnetapark the rest of Delft also became supplied with fresh drinking water. Next to the tower is a large water reservoir underneath the ground.
The Lepelbridge (“Spoonbridge”) exists since the 16th century (in wood), and was replaced in steel in 1929, architects L. de Roo de la Falle and W. Gijzen. It was the entrance to Delft and the passage to Rotterdam by water from The Hague and further. Skippers had to pay taxes in the city of Delft (a “spoon” grain tax for each sack of grain).
15. Lab Oost, Alexander Fleminglaan 10
Started in 1885 as the laboratory of Beijerinck (later the well-known microbiologist and professor at Delft University). The old building was replaced in 1928 by a 3 floor high building, in the Dutch “the Hague school” style, for use as a research center. Now out of use.
16. Fabriek C-hoog, Alexander Fleminglaan 14
In 1894 built as “Factory C”, built for producing the new yeast the so called “air yeast”, using a very fast yeast production method for that time. At the north east side of the original building a 6 floor high tower was built in 1928, in 2005 the original part was broken down.
17. Grondstoffenloods Friso, Alexander Fleminglaan 5
In 1939, just before the second world war, it was decided to build an underground shelter for the employees of the Yeast and Calvé factories. On top of the shelter was build a raw materials store from steel. A discharged line for yeast molasses was built at the waterfront.
18. Grote Kantoor, Wateringseweg 1
One of the last works of Jacques van Marken was creating a combined head-office for the Yeast and Oil (later Calvé) factories “the big office”. Architect Schelling used a new design of a station, with a beautiful window rooftop. Van Marken passed away in 1906 and missed the grand opening. Nowadays no longer in use, but still a national monument.
19. Moniergebouw (demolished)
Built in 1905 for the purpose of storage for the Calvé factory, Architect Jonas Hegt. Constructed in ferroconcrete, invented by Joseph Monier, the first building in Delft like this. Since 1952 till it’s shut down in use as canteen for the workers. The only building that remained after the closure of the Calvé factory in Delft in 2008. It was a local monument. Unfortunately this building has been demolished in November 2019.
20. Bridge operator’s house, Nieuwe Plantage 114
You’re now passing the houses where the bridge keepers lived, next to the former Reineveldbridge. Because the Yeast and Calvé used a lot of coal in those days for energy, the houses close by, like the bridge keepers houses were covered with coal dust. In the early 1920’s when the new bridge keeper was to be installed, his wife showed a doctors attest so they didn’t have to live there. Another family was chosen to live there with the coal dust. In 1931 a new Reineveldbridge was built 150m further away, next to the Waller garden, that split the Waller garden in two (see 21).
21. Gardens Tutein Noltheniuspark and Wallertuin
When at the end of the 19th century the new Delft Canal around the old town of Delft was dug, loading and unloading by boat at the Yeast factory went much more quickly. The grass-land that was added to the old town, was precisely the place where the new directors (Frans Waller and Hugo Tuteijn Nolthenius) of the factories lived. So both of them added the ground to their gardens, Tuteijn Nolthenius garden was designed by L. Springer, Waller’s garden had a private tennis court and teagarden. In 1931 the gardens were reduced, because of the new bridge. In the eighties the new owner wanted to reshape the garden, but because of disagreements with neighbours and Delft municipality it has now become neglected and looks like a jungle.
22. Residential building F.G. Waller, Nieuwe Plantage 30-46
The house where Frans Waller and his family lived. This nephew of Jacques van Marken and his successor as president director general of the Yeast factory built this house with the latge garden behind it in 1907. Designed by architects J.Cuijpers and J. Stuyt. In the second world war it was confiscated by the Germans. During the war years in the Yeast factory itself penicillin was developed (codename ‘Bacinol’). Nowadays the house consists of apartments.
23. Residential building Hugo Tutein Nolthenius, Nieuwe Plantage 48
The house of Tutein Nolthenius, president director of the Calvé Delft factory and art collector. In his house were old masters like Isaac Israels and Vincent van Gogh (The Potato Eaters). Glass-glass windows were designed by artists J. Thorn Prikker and H. Kamerlingh Onnes (relative of Tutein Nolthenius). Professionally he asked Dutch artist Jan Toorop to design Calvé-billboards in the well-known Jugendstil, in Holland known as “slaoliestijl” / ”salad oil style”.
24. City hall Vrijenban, Nieuwe Plantage 58
The City hall of Vrijenban (now part of Delft), designed by architect Schelling (the Yeast factory “house” architect). Vrijenban had 1500 inhabitants in those days, from 1921 it was annexed by Delft. The house was, later on, used as the mayors residence of Delft. Since 2002 it is an office building.
25. Location park shop and Railway station NG&SF
The Dutch Railway Line Company has a station in Delft since 1847. In 1883 the Yeast factory got her own station, between the Agnetapark and the factory. To enter the Yeast factory, the employees had to cross the railway over here. It was also the place where in 1893 the 300 English bakers visited the Yeast factory. Near this place the cooperative shop opened, on the second floor “NV Gemeenschappelijk Eigendom”. A City hall for intern affairs of the Agnetapark inhabitants and employees of the factories, as van Marken described it. In the sixties it was demolished.
Return to no. 1
Start at no. 1 and see items 1, 10 and 11
26. Residence Van Marken, Noordeinde 50-52
Second home of Van Marken, here he starts the “Onder Ons” meetings, meetings where musicians, artists, and scientists, met and discussed everything. Later on the meetings enlarged and were held, first in the society later on in the local theatre “The Stadsdoelen“ (location of current Hanno-restaurant).
27. Residence of student Van Marken Voorstraat 90-92
The dormitory where Jacques stayed in is early college years, the landlady was Miss Le Clercq, daughter of the owner of the soap-factory Busquets.
28. Society “Eensgezindheid” (Consensus), Voorstraat 18
The Place where meetings of “Onder Ons”, little expositions of children’s home craft. Here was founded in cooperation with brother-in-law Kerdijk: the Delft Shop Community In 1873. In their mind, only a cooperative community could bring the working class and the upper class together.
29. The cooperative shop, Choorstraat 27
Started in 1887: the cooperative shop inside the town of Delft, for the employees who lived inside the city walls. The family Denie, who were housekeeping Villa Rust Roest, became shopkeepers.
30. House of Lambert van Meerten, Oude Delft 199
Distillery and Yeast factory owner Lambert van Meerten (competitor of Van Marken) collected a lot of furniture, porcelain and art from the 16th and 17th century. Built a house on the Oude Delft, designed by Jan Schouten (glass artist in Delft) in cooperation with Adolf le Comte (teacher at Delft University and advisor at Royal Delft Pottery “ The Porceleyne Fles”) to show his collection. But then he and his factory went bankrupt and to save the museum, a group of “friends” was founded to secure the museum in which van Meerten could live till he died in 1904. The museum was open till 2013, nowadays owned by historic association “Hendrick de Keyser” it building will be reused as offices.
31. Residence (and factory Maison Neuve), Phoenixstraat 52-56
The third house of Jacques and Agneta. Here Agneta founded her perfume factory Maison Neuve, a bit later a real factory in the backyard, the building itself still exists (sometimes it is possible to visit). In 1880 the big garden was opened as a park for senior citizens living next door. The first telephone was installed, so van Marken had a direct line to the Yeast factory. In 1885 they moved to the Agnetapark.
Next door lived at 58 professor Pekelharing, leader and initiator of the Dutch “Comité ter bespreking van de Sociale Quaestie” (committee to discuss the social changes in society) founded in 1870 (the Dutch start of the Industrial Revolution). Both Van Marken and his brother-in-law Kerdijk were members.
32. Residence Van Marken, Oude Delft 106
The first house of Jacques and Agneta after their marriage and founding of the Yeast factory in 1869. The 24 year old Jacques lived here and earned a salary of 2.000 guilders (1.000 dollar) a year.
33. The new church and City Hall, Markt
On one side the city hall since 1200, rebuild in 1618-1620 by Hendrick de Keyser, on the other side “the New Church” (second in line after “the Old Church” at the Oude Delft) founded in 1381, rebuilt in 1536 after the great fire that demolished a great part of Delft. In 1872, after a lightning strike, the tower again was demolished and again rebuilt, designed by Eugen Gugel and Pierre Cuypers. In 1877 the work was finished. In this church the Dutch Royal Family is buried.
34. Bookstore Waltman, Binnenwatersloot 55
The bookstore of Waltman made the student almanac, which was made yearly by the Delft Student Corps. Jacques van Marken was one of the editors and published his first poems. In 1865 the bookstore published his first letter, that protested against the University of Utrecht, who were against the upgrading of the Delft technical school (now University). Still a signboard at the shop, designed by Tétar van Elven, shows the virgin that was printed on the student almanac.
35. Royal Academy later Poly-Technical School (now University Delft), Oude Delft 95
17 years old Jacques started in 1862 at the Royal Academy. A year later this school for civil engineers was renamed as Polytechnical School. He graduated as the first Technologist in Delft in1867. Nowadays it is the IHE, Delft Institute for Water Education, an international university.
36. Laboratory and private house of Professor Iterson, Oude Delft 81
When van Iterson, student of Professor Beijerinck, becomes himself professor microscopic anatomy in 1907, he started here. The garden becomes a nursery of special species of plants. 10 years later he founded the “Botanische Tuin” (see 61 Botanic Garden). For a long time now Oude Delft 81 has consisted of student housing.
37. Museum Tétar van Elven, Koornmarkt 67
Art-painter and educator at the Polytechnical School Tétar van Elven, teaches Van Marken and later on becomes member of the discussion group Muzis, with Van Marken, that discussed art, politics, music and so on.
38. Synagogue, Koornmarkt 12
Designed in 1861 by architect Winkel. Van Marken in his heart an ecumenical thinker, gave in 1898, when anti-Semitism again started in Europe, an oriental rug to be used in the synagogue. The rabbi invited Jacques and Agneta to celebrate Easter in the synagogue.
39. Residence of student van Marken, Oude Delft 29
1866 a big cholera disaster also hits Delft (because of dirty drinking water from the canals), Jacques and his landlord Mrs. Le Clercq move to the Oude Delft, the most clean canal of Delft.
40. Former Bacteriological Laboratory and private house of Professor Beijerinck, Nieuwelaan 1-21
In 1895 Beijerinck becomes professor Biology and Bacteriology at the Polytechnical School in Delft, after 10 years’ work at the Yeast and Spiritus factory. A house and laboratory was build, where Beijerinck discovered the virus and becomes the “father of virology”.
41. Buildings University North quarters, Kanaalweg
In 1900-1905 the first buildings, of the poly-technical School, were built outside the city center of Delft, designed by architect J. van Lokhorst.
42. Science Centre and Museum Beijerinck, Mijnbouwstraat 120
In this former Mining and Oil engineering faculty (built in 1912), the Science Centre and the Museum Beijerinck opened in 2008. The Beijerinck part in the museum can be visited only by appointment.
43. Civil engineering faculty / BK city, Julianalaan 134
Built in 1915, designed by architect Van Drecht to be the chemistry faculty. In 2008 changed, after the burning down of the former Architecture building, into BK-city. Within 5 months the faculty was re-located here, in the beginning just for a period for 5 years, but nowadays BK-city will remain here.
End at no. 62
Polytechnic route (red)
Start at no, 1 and see 10, 11 and 31
44. Former City Hall Hof van Delft, St. Olofsstraat 21
Former city hall of hamlet “Hof van Delft” (nowadays part of Delft)
The city hall where the illegitimate children of Jacques and Agneta, Anna, Jaap and Ada married. Later on it became a community centre, converted into apartments in 2013.
45. Student Society “Phoenix”, Phoenixstraat 30
After the destruction by fire of their former society “the jenever church”; a new accommodation was built by architect Nieuwenhuis assistant of professor Gugel in 1876. Inside there are beautiful paintings referring to societies, like the Debatingclub of Jacques van Marken.
46. Society “Standvastigheid”, Phoenixstraat 9
Society “Standvastigheid” was established in the backyard of Oude Delft 123 in 1781. Inside there is a bowling alley, Jacques van Marken was member of this society.
47. Residence of Arnold Kerdijk and Elisabeth Matthes (sister of Agneta), Spoorsingel 3
They lived here, close to the house of Jacques and Agneta, after their marriage in 1876. The two brothers in law, talked a lot about social questions and problems what they could do to solve them. Kerdijk started the Social Weekly magazine, became director of the post savings bank, and entered the Dutch parliament.
48. Former Coffee House, Corner Binnenwatersloot – Westvest
The first society of the Delft students “de Zaak”, Jacques was member of the board and published his poems in the Student Almanac. Nothing is left of the old building.
49. Educational buildings Polytechnical School, Westvest 7-9
With the railroad entering Delft, this part of town was rebuilt. An avenue with trees and new buildings facing the station. The Polytechnical School builds two buildings, one designed by Bruyn Kops and one by Eugen Gugel, the first professor of the Polytechnical School and also designer of the residence of Jacques and Agneta in the Agnetapark “Rust Roest”.
50. Former Delft Railway station, Stationsplein 14
The railway station, designed by Postumus Meyjes, pupil of Eugen Gugel, in 1885. Also the Snouck van Loosenpark in Enkhuizen, another social project clearly inspired by the Agnetapark in Delft, was designed by Postumus Meyjes.
51. Royal Delft, Rotterdamseweg 196
Royal Delft is the last remaining Delft manufacturer of Delft Blue since the 17th century. To this day Royal Delft uses the same production method which nowadays is the international standard of Delft Blue. At the end of the 19th century Joost Thooft and later Abel Labouchere become director of the Delft Blue factory, with the order of perfume bottles from the new Maison Neuve (a perfume factory of Agneta) revenues increased.
52. Educational buildings Delft University Campus, Rotterdamseweg 137 and 141
TU Delft has the ambition of renewing the campus en stimulating innovation. That’s why these faculty buildings were built recently. The Building of the Hague University is designed by Royal Haskoning Architects in cooperation with Syb van Breda and the building of InHolland University is designed by Rietveld Architects.
53. The Ham residence, farmer, Rotterdamseweg 155
Claes Arentz, owner of the “de Ham” brewery in Delft, started this farm in 1550. The entrance was built in 1608. It is now a national monument.
54. Lijm & Cultuur; former Glue and Gelatin Factory, Rotterdamseweg 272
Because of the smell spreading beyond the city a new factory was built in 1885 on the Rotterdamseweg to produce glue, bone meal and gelatin. The third factory of Jacques and Agneta. The three factories were promoted as the “Delft Nijverheid” (the Delft Industry). Transformed into a cultural space in 2003 “Lijm and Cultuur”.
55. Green Village, Van den Broekweg 4
Innovation was one of the strong points of Jacques and Agneta, Green Village a result of Delft University started in 2008 on the location of the former Architecture building. All kinds of new innovations are tested here, used and showed.
56. Yes!Delft and Yes!Delft Labs, Molengraafsingel 10-12
On the south side of the Delft University campus there are various buildings with offices and laboratories for start-ups. New innovative entrepreneurs and businesses as spin-off from Delft University. The first building was Radex later on followed by the Yes!buildings.
57. Delft University Campus, Mekelweg
After the second world war, Delft University grew energetically at the south side of Delft. The Mekelweg became the central avenue. Transformed by Mecanoo architects to a landscape design in 2008. Situated alongside the avenue are many interesting buildings: The university library by Mecanoo (1997), the auditorium by Jaap Bakema (1968) and the electro technology building by Geert Drexhage (1972).
End at no. 62
Start at no. 1 and see 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 20, 21 and proceed to 58
58. “Hofje van Pauw, Paardenmarkt 54
Courtyards were often built by the wealthy religious people in the middle ages and golden age, as an inheritance. Mostly to ensure an access to heaven after death. “Hofje van Pauw” was built by Elisabeth Pauw, mayor’s daughter, for the poor in the city in 1707.
The Doelengarden was developed on the grounds of the former ‘Stadsdoelen’, where the civic guard exercised. A theatre (‘Doelentheatre’) was founded here at the end of the 19th century. The place where Jacques shared his poems and social thoughts with his fellow students and other friends. Nowadays it is a park with restaurant Hanno en Filmhuis Lumen.
60.“Klaeuwshofje”, Oranje Plantage 58-77
A catholic residential community for poor widows and single women, built by Dirck and Elisabeth Uyttenhage van Ruyven brewers in Delft named after their brewery “In the Claeuw” in 1605.
x. Oostpoort 1
You pass the “Oostpoort”, the last remaining entrance to the City of Delft from the middle ages. Founded in 1400.
61. Botanic Garden, Poortlandplein 6
The botanic garden was founded in 1917 by professor van Iterson, student of professor Beijerinck. The garden was founded for “technical crops” as a cultural garden. The garden was a professional successor to the garden at the Oude Delft, founded by Van Marken and Beijerinck, and later Nieuwelaan. The history of the garden is closely associated to that of the agriculture of Indonesia (a former colony of the Dutch). Civil servants for the colony were educated in Delft. The study was a precursor of the Delft university. In the Botanic Garden is an artwork gift in honour of the 100th birthday of the Yeast and Spiritus factory.
End at no. 62
End of Centrum-, Polytechnic- and Gardenroute
62. Jaffa cemetery, Jaffalaan 10
January 10th 1906, after being laid on his desk in his office, the “royal” funeral of Jacques van Marken starts at Villa Rust Roest. To the cemetery on the other side of town through the streets of Delft the procession walked. Three years later Agneta is placed next to Jacques. Near to their graves, other well-known contemporaries are interred, like: Jasper ten Braanker, Paul Tétar van Elven, Lambert van Meerten, Jan Schouten and Frederik Willem Braat.